Anatomy and Function of the Heart's Electrical System
The heart's electrical system:
The heart is, in the simplest terms, a pump made up of muscle tissue. Like all pumps, the heart requires a source of energy and oxygen in order to function. The heart's pumping action comes from an intrinsic electrical conduction system.
How does the heart beat?
An electrical stimulus is generated by the sinus node (also called the sinoatrial node, or SA node), which is a small mass of specialized tissue located in the right atrium (right upper chamber) of the heart. The sinus node generates an electrical stimulus regularly (60-100 times per minute under normal conditions). This electrical stimulus travels down through the conduction pathways (similar to the way electricity flows through power lines from the power plant to your house) and causes the heart's lower chambers to contract and pump out blood. The right and left atria (the two upper chambers of the heart) are stimulated first and contract a short period of time before the right and left ventricles (the two lower chambers of the heart). The electrical impulses travel from the sinus node to the atrioventricular (AV) node, where impulses are slowed down briefly, then continue down the conduction pathway via the bundle of His into the ventricles. The bundle of His divides into right and left pathways to provide electrical stimulation to both ventricles. Normally, as the electrical impulse moves through the heart, the heart contracts about 60 to 100 times a minute. Each contraction of the ventricles represents one heartbeat. The atria contract a fraction of a second before the ventricles so their blood empties into the ventricles before the ventricles contract.
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